DNA Reference

Adoption Services

Y-DNA Testing + 2 Hours Consulting $500

A male adoptee can benefit from a Y-DNA test. Since the Y-chromosome follows the male line of the family, a match to his Y-DNA profile in genetic genealogy databases can indicate the last name of his birth father. A match can also reveal his family’s ethnic background and sometimes family geography. These are valuable leads in a male adoptee’s search for his birth family.

Autosomal DNA Testing + 2 Hours Consulting $600

Both male and female adoptees can benefit from autosomal testing. Autosomal DNA testing involves markers called SNPs (or snips) that occur on all chromosomes. An adoptee’s autosomal matches are determined by the percent DNA he shares with others who have been tested. Based on this percentage, his degree of "cousinship" is estimated with each match, and the match’s family pedigree is examined to determine where the adoptee might fit in. The adoptee may be related to an autosomal match through any line of his birth family, so autosomal matches takes some time to interpret.

Mitochondrial Testing (mtDNA) + 2 Hours Consulting $510

Both male and female adoptees can benefit from mitochondrial testing. mtDNA is passed along the direct female line of the family. A mother passes to all of her children, but only her daughters pass it on to the next generation. An mtDNA match can reveal information about an adoptee's birth mother. However, because mtDNA mutates much more slowly than Y-DNA, an mtDNA match can indicate a common ancestor hundreds if not thousands of years in the past. mtDNA is good for obtaining information on deep roots, or for confirming a known female-linked relationship, but not usually useful to an adoptee searching for his birth family.

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